Uncategorized Government 1B

Government 1B Lesson 55

Describe the models of society laid out by Althusius and Hobbes.

Johannes Althusius model is a series of levels. First comes the primary unit, which is the family. Then a group of families may form a village. Then a group of villages may form Providences. Then a group of Providences may form a kingdom. This is a federative policy, and the power is shared by these various social authorities, but is not held by the central government. The social authorities have rights and liberties of their own. Except, these rights and liberties are preceded by the central government and it is not possible for it to be interfered with or cancelled by. This model has been used for many centuries.

Thomas Hobbes model is different from the Althusius model. Hobbes model is a single flat plain. There isn’t a diverse array of social authority, but is ran by a mass of individuals. However, these individuals follow a central government with the power to rule over them. This model has been used for a few centuries.

What are the compact and nationalist theories of the Union?

The Compact Theory follows the Althusius model. It shows that a Union is a collection of states, a Union is created by the states, and the states are the original units. The Nationalist Theory follows the Hobbes model. It shows that a union is a single whole, the Union came first, the States exist as the only parts of a union, and the Union is the original unit.

This was my essay for Government 1B Lesson 55 I hope you enjoyed it.

English 4 Uncategorized

English 4 Lesson 55

Write a three-stanza song — four lines per stanza — for either the Rebels or the Loyalists.

The king says he wants to take away our right

We are not going to let him do this without a fight

The king keeps displaying tyranny

And he started a conspiracy


He started two major act’s

You know those are true fact’s

We started the Boston Tea Party

And we aren’t going to be sorry


So join us Rebels if you please

It will give us a lot of ease

Together we will finish this

And the king shall be in a abyss


This was my essay for English 4 Lesson 55 I hope you enjoyed it.

Government 1B Uncategorized

Government 1B Lesson 50

What is the origin of money?

What is Money? Money is a generally accepted medium of exchange. What is a medium of exchange? A good that is valued, at least in part for its potential employment in exchange. Before Money had become a thing, we had a system called bartering. Bartering is a direct exchange. Like if you wanted to trade cheese for paper, or shoes for apples. What this means is that you can trade anything, but it has to be a valuable item, in order to be used in bartering.

Later, a new way of exchange came, and it’s called gold. Gold is a very valuable metal, and has been used as money for many centuries. This is an indirect exchange. Gold is not only used in currency form, but can be used for certain accessories. This also includes Silver.

A century or two later, the Government gets involved with money. Just to be clear, the Government was never involved with money until then. The market was involved with money before the Government was involved. The Government printed out paper bills, which is the money we are currently using today in our modern society. We also used to have a system of commodity money where the bills were backed up as gold, but the problem arises when the government produces fiat money, which is not backed up by gold. This is the origin of how money had came into existence.

Name and explain three disadvantages that have been identified with fiat money.

The first disadvantage would be that the government increases supply of money, which has lead to prices rising to a higher level than they would have reached. The second disadvantage is the distribution effect. Whoever is getting the money first will get to spend the new money at the old price level. As the new money starts working its way through the economy, the prices will rise up. Then people who get the money in the end are losers, because they have been paying higher prices.

The third disadvantage is that fiat money can drop all the way to zero. Commodity money will never drop to zero because its worth something, but fiat money is not worth it. It isn’t backed up by nothing, plus its losing it’s value every single day. The government just prints this money out of thin air. The best way to save a lot of money is to have a lot of silver and/or gold coins. This because these coins will be worth something in the future, unlike fiat money which is worth barley anything. These are at least three problems that have been identified with fiat money.

This was my essay for Government 1B Lesson 50 I hope you enjoyed it.

English 4 Uncategorized

English 4 Lesson 50

Is there anyone you think is more of the archetypal American than Franklin?

Benjamin Franklin was a man who did a lot of things for our country. I will start off with his religion. He was a Deist, which he believed that the good should be rewarded and the bad should be dismissed. He believed that God was good. He did not focus a lot on his belief, however he believed in the Christian way of being good.

He had helped out during the American Revolution, which started because the British were taxing the Americans after the French and Indian War. Since it had started it caused a lot of frustration to the Americans, which made them oppose the Stamp Act and Townshend Act. This also caused the Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, etc. He signed the Declaration of Independence. When he did that he had become one of the Founding Father’s of the United States. During that time had also lived in Europe, because he loved how the Europeans lived. He would travel to England, and France.

Franklin had started his own Printing Press, and printed out the yearly almanac. He earned a lot of success doing this. Franklin was also an inventor. He had created the Franklin stove, which was made of stone, and not out of wood. He paved down roads, conducted electricity, created bifocals, and so much more. Franklin had created the University of Pennsylvania, the militia, the American Philosophy Society, and had organized the Fire Department. He created many books, but the book I had read this week was called “Autobiography”.

So there is no one else I can think of that is more of an Archetypal American than Benjamin Franklin.

This was my essay for English 4 Lesson 50 I hope you enjoyed it.

Government 1B Uncategorized

Government 1B Lesson 45

The “benefit principle” has been used to justify progressive income taxation. What is the benefit principle? Are there any problems with it? If so, what?

The “benefit principle” is an idea of how people should be taxed in accordance with the benefits they receive from the Government. The first problem is that everyone receiving a subsidy would have to pay the amount of the subsidy. The second problem is that the rich would pay less than the poor for police protection. I think these are the 2 problems with the “benefit principle”.

What is the Washington Monument Syndrome?

The Washington Monument Syndrome is a term. This term describes how the Washington Monument got shut down by the Government due to Budget-Cuts. The people who wanted to visit the Monument got upset because it was closed. After a while, it opened up again. So, there are no more Budget-Cuts. This happened during the 1970’s, and not only has this happened there but also in other parks and services. The Government was trying to make the people angry, and the Monument got restored by the Government restoring the funds for the monument. Therefore, the Government started this whole thing for no reason.

This was my essay for Government 1B Lesson 45 I hope you enjoyed it.

English 4 Uncategorized

English 4 Lesson 45

If you had heard these two sermons, would you have assumed that you were the target? Why or why not?

This week I had read 2 sermons. The first one was called “Marks of a True Conversion” by George Whitefield. The second one was called “Sinners in the hands of an angry God” by Jonathan Edwards.

George Whitefield was a preacher during the 18th century. He wrote about in his sermon of how you would end up in Sheol no matter what you do. Whether you were good or bad or have done everything in order to get in Heaven you’ll end up in Sheol. Even if you were baptized as child, you’ll end up in Sheol. Here is the catch, he never says how to save yourself from Sheol in order to get into Heaven.

Jonathan Edwards was another preacher during the 18th century. He wrote about in his sermon how God is angry with you and he doesn’t like you. God will hurt you, and mess with you. Edwards even uses terrifying images in order to scare the sinners. He used a spider preying on us in Sheol and making a web on us. He also used an image of God crushing people.

Honestly in my opinion, these 2 sermons were meant to scare people into not becoming sinners or to add more fear into your life. I’m not a Christian, but I would have assumed I was the target. Even if I was the target, I would not believe in these sermons. God is not supposed to be angry with you unless you have sinned, but he will forgive you anyway and not hurt you. However, I also think that you will end up in Heaven, if you are good, but if you are bad you will end up in Sheol. This is the belief I’m used to knowing, not Whitefield or Edwards theory.

This was my essay for English 4 Lesson 45 I hope you enjoyed it.

Government 1B Uncategorized

Government 1B Lesson 40

Explain the basics of the Austrian theory of the business cycle. What is the difference, in terms of consequences, between lower interest rates that result from the saving choices of individuals, and lower interest rates that are achieved artificially, by a government-established central bank?

Business Cycles go up and down and back up again and back down again. This cycle is repetitive. The Austrian theory of a Business Cycle includes interest rates, consumption, production and savings from the latter two. This theory was created by Ludwig von Mises.

The first state of the Business Cycle is that the Central Bank gets money by purchasing government securities, and Business starts to rise. The second state is that consumer prices and interest rates start rising. The third state is that capital goods starts to fall more than consumer goods and recession begins. The fourth state is that recession ends and business returns to normal. This is what happens when the central banks i.e. the government is involved.

If we had no central bank or government involvement, then the cycles would be free. There would be no inflation of prices. Then there will be stable interest rates, high savings rates, and economic growth. Therefore the free market is not responsible for how businesses tend to rise and fall. The government and it’s policies are responsible for this.

There is a difference between saving choices and lowered interest rates. The first example I will include will be for the saving choices. Imagine if you are in the wilderness. You live far away from the city and you have no stores near you. You need to eat in order to survive. Lets say you eat berries. If you were to eat all of the berries from a bush, you won’t be hungry anymore. But that means you had eaten all the berries and there might not be anymore berries. What you should do is to eat less but save more, while planning to increase your production of berries. That way you will have more in the future to eat or trade. You need to consume less and save more or grow more, in order to sustain a free cycle of consumption and production. This example can also include animals, but I will not write on that topic.

If you were to sell the berries on the market, you would have to first have to find out “How much do berries cost?” Say that the berries for a seller cost $2.00. Now you would open a business that sold berries. This time you would lower the price to either $1.50, $1.00. Many more variables such as production costs, savings and future production are needed to establish a free market price for berries.

This is different when it comes to government involvement. It’s different because people keep spending more money than they make. And if that happens the people will go bankrupt and will have to shut down their businesses. Not only that, but people can raise prices for no reason. You should not raise prices unless there is a good reason. Since that happens people are consuming more, not focusing on the future, and not paying attention. People might spend money on things they don’t really need at the moment. Wait until you get the income and wait for the right time. You need to have a plan for the future or else you will have a failed business. If you really need to improve your business, you have to stick to a plan taking into account that businesses must remain flexible to market fluctuations. Then you have to consume less and save more or produce more depending on your business.

The consequences that result from saving choices of individuals would be lower inflation, interest rates, and price stability, resulting in sustainable economic growth. When the government is involved the consequences are the opposite, inflation and economic recession.

What have been some of the problems with the federal prohibition on certain drugs?

Today you can obviously know about drugs, and know that there are laws in certain countries or states about them. Many drugs can be legal but some may be illegal. I have not taken drugs, yet. There is a problem when the Government is involved with illegal drugs. They try prohibiting drugs or banning them. Even when they do that the people still will use them or sell them. No matter what you do you can’t stop these people, because they won’t care. They get addicted or rich depending on what you do with drugs. Question is why prohibit drugs? Because it’s dangerous, people get addicted and over due it. They can have medical problems, or worse. Not only that but people around my age, high school teens who are not home schooled take illegal drugs. You can get arrested and your own house taken away from you.

This was my essay for Government 1B Lesson 40 I hope you enjoyed it.

English 4 Uncategorized

English 4 Lesson 40

If you had been a member of the General Court, how would this sermon have influenced your politics? Why?

I read a long Sermon this week from a man named Cotton Mather. The Sermon I read was called “Theopolis Americana”. He talked about several topics. He said that all Jew’s will convert to Christianity, and once this happens Jesus will return and rule as the King of the Church. Now in my opinion about this, I think this is not true. Why? Because all of the Jew’s will not convert, they will convert if they choose to. Everyone has a right to convert if they please and not by force. I disagree with this whole topic that Mather had talked about.

He talked about Business. He said how you can have Business, but without corruption. I agree, we should have a quality Business life, but no stealing or anything that is false, or else this will promote something bad in the future and when you have passed away. A short one has to do with Alcohol consumption, like drinking beer, wine, etc. Well, whats wrong with that? What’s wrong with it is that people overdue it. They could et seriously injured, or in trouble with the law. I do agree with this as well.

Slavery is really bad. Who could not agree on this? Slavery has been going on since the beginning of time, and still continues in certain countries. They would get kidnapped, whipped, injured, executed, and much more. Now, you know about Slavery obviously in North America. The owners of the slaves would do really bad things with their slaves. It was not only just men, but women and children as well. It’s even in the bible saying Slavery is bad and very cruel.

Now would this sermon influence my politics, if I had been part of the General Court? Well, almost everything, except for the Jew’s Converting to Christianity. I see most of things he discussed is very true, except that certain topic. I could tell him he’s right about everything except to call the the Jew’s that have to convert to Christianity, off. Maybe he would listen to me then and realize that everyone should have a right to do what they want.

This was my essay for English 4 Lesson 40 I hope you enjoyed it.

Government 1B Uncategorized

Government 1B Lesson 35

What are some of the factors that have contributed to rising health-care costs in the United States?

Ah, Health Care, the major medical insurance service in the United States. The prices of medical procedures and medicines have raised really high prices. Many people want to get these things without paying so much money. Insurance is used, but people prefer health care because of the benefits and the special word “FREE”. People want free stuff because they don’t like paying so much. Some Health Care plans you have to pay as well. So what, you might ask me? Well, people are relying on the Government to help pay for Health Care, Medical Care, etc. Sometimes people forget that its the Government paying for everything. And people who have health care, might brag to people about it and probably walking like in a Hollywood movie. The problem is people need to use insurance or pay it themselves instead of using Health Care. No I’m not saying you should not have Health Care or anything. I just want you all to be aware of this, and to note that the Government is involved in this and to not rely on them if your able to.

Evaluate this statement: “World War II was a time of great prosperity in the United States.”

Yes and no. It was a great prosperity, but there is a reason for all this. Because of World War II. The war had a lot of materials being used, the United States used lots of these materials for the War, instead of making more of these materials to the Public. Pretty much I’m saying that sure it’s a great prosperity but the materials can be used for military purposes to win World War II.

This was my essay for Government 1B Lesson 35 I hope you enjoyed it.

English 4 Uncategorized

English 4 Lesson 35

In what ways was Penn an advocate of middle class morality?

William Penn was famous for two things. The first thing was created a book called “Fruits of Solitude”, which is a book of different aphorisms. The second thing was that he was a founder of Pennsylvania. He was also a Quaker. I’ll give you a few examples of what he talked about in his book.

He talks about how some men are not listening to God, and how they are disobeying God. I think he has a point there. Everyone forgets who created man. God created you. Never forget that the reason you are here is because of God. He has the power to do anything he wishes to do so be very careful in the future.

Another thing he spoke about was marriage. He said that you should marry for love and not for money. Many people of course marry for money today because they are gold diggers. If you marry for money then there is something very wrong with you and you won’t live a great life. Marry for love and you will live a good life and God will be happy. This is similar to the idea of greedy people.

Living in the country life is a good thing. It’s quiet and you have lots of peace. This is something Penn had favored. I agree with Penn, but I’m used to both city and country life so it doesn’t effect me in such a way. He talked about a simple life. If that is possible to achieve then maybe it’s a good thing. Simple life is better than a double life or a hard life.

Last thing he talked about was charity and industry. You should give lots of money to help people. That’s a good thing. But don’t give them all your money, choose a good amount of money to give out. He said if you work long hard labor, you earn money. This is good because you work so hard for you and maybe even your own family or whoever in order to earn income.

Now I would say that some of these ways showed that Penn was an advocate of middle class morality. He provides good aphorisms to try to open the readers mind and show them the right path to life. I would agree on this.

This was my essay for English 4 Lesson 35 I hope you enjoyed it.